Ubuntu

This page are beginner steps for Ubuntu!

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15 comments on “Ubuntu

  1. Here are the steps to get started with UBUNTU

    download .iso from ubuntu and burn to disc

    boot from disc and install

    if you had server distribution, there will be no desktop installed. Default is UNITY desktop (but you can install GNOME, KDE…..ect). First update your download repository before proceeding wtih the desktop install:
    #sudo apt-get update

    Next install the gui desktop
    #sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
    **this will take some time.

    Once gui is installed you simply need to reboot #sudo reboot

    take control of the root password:
    #sudo -i
    **provide a new password

  2. SETUP an OPEN SSH Server for Remote administration of your server!

    NEXT we look into making this server into an SSH server so that remote administration can be done. We dont want to have passwords being passed via the network,,,,thus we will be creating

    install both client and server
    #sudo apt-get install openssh-client
    #sudo apt-get install openssh-server
    configure a different port than the default port 22 (may have to change this back to 22 when copy public key certificates
    #sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    restart ssh due to configuration change
    #sudo service ssh restart
    create your users PKI certificate on CLIENT
    #ssh-keygen

    on server create the account for the remote user
    # sudo useradd jeff
    set password
    # sudo passwd jeff
    check if firewall is off
    # sudo ufw status
    create users home directory where certificates are copied to and then give ownership both owner:group to the users new directory
    #sudo mkdir /home/user
    #sudo mkdir /home/jeff/.ssh
    #sudo chown jeff:jeff /home/jeff

    note the below steps didnt work without changing the port back to port 22 temporarily and then changing them back…..this done only for copying of the certificates over—so that passwords are not used.
    on client do the following:
    #ssh-copy-id username@server

    change ssh server port back to something other than 22.
    now test SSH connectivity
    #ssh username@server

    now test SSH connectivity with gui tools
    #ssh -X username@server
    #firefox

    DONE! -F4x4

  3. WORDPRESS!

    The following were steps for getting wordpress up and running.

    Step 1. Install LAMP server on ubuntu server, to install LAMP Server in Ubuntu server 12.04 you can follow instructions @LAMP Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS

    #sudo apt-get install apache2
    #sudo apt-get install mysql-server
    see more on LinuxApacheMysqlPhp here:
    https://www.digitalocean.com/community/articles/how-to-install-linux-apache-mysql-php-lamp-stack-on-ubuntu

    Step 2. If you do not have a problem when installing lamp server in ubuntu server 12.04, we proceed to install wordpress

    sudo apt-get install wordpress

    Step 3. Make a symbolic link to the Apache2 directory /var/www/ , The wordpress installation placed in directory /usr/share/wordpress folder

    sudo ln -s /usr/share/wordpress /var/www/wordpress

    Step 4. install WordPress with the supplied script, the script placed in directory /usr/share/doc/wordpress/examples/.

    sudo bash /usr/share/doc/wordpress/examples/setup-mysql -n wordpress localhost

    After execute this script, it will creates the MySQL database and user wordpress for the new MySQL database named localhost. If you have installed virtual host on server and/or already know your URL, it is best to name your database the same as your URL. Also if you plan on hosting multiple blogs with different virtual hosts, each needs a differently named database.

    sudo bash /usr/share/doc/wordpress/examples/setup-mysql -n wordpress_preciseserver blog.preciseserver.com

    Step 5. For automatic updates to occur, the folder and all its files and subfolders wordpress must be owned by www-data:

    chown -R www-data /usr/share/wordpress

    Now, open your web browser to install wordpress, type on address bar http://localhost/wordpress
    Install wordpress Manually in Ubuntu server 12.04

    if you want to install latest wordpress manully on ubuntu server,you can follow instructions below

    Login on your ubuntu server,login as root

    sudo -i

    wget -O wordpress.tar.gz http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

    tar -zxvf wordpress.tar.gz

    cd wordpress

    cp -R wordpress /var/www

    chown -R www-data /var/www/wordpress

    Log in to mysql server as root user

    mysql -u root -p

    Create database with command below,in case we’ll create database with name “dbwordrpess”

    CREATE DATABASE dbwordpress;

    Create a new user of username wordpressuser, with command below

    CREATE USER wordpressuser;

    Create password “wppassword” for user “wordpressuser”;

    SET PASSWORD FOR wordpressuser = PASSWORD(“wppassword”);

    Grant user wordpressuser all permissions on the database.

    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON dbwordpress.* TO wordpressuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY ‘wppassword’;

    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

    Log out from mysql server

    exit

    ———————————-NOTES———————————————-
    i had to copy wp-config-sample.php from the wordpress root to wp-config.php and #vim wp-config.php and filled in the database name, user and password….then everthing worked great! IF you mess up……simply start again by moving the old one out and putting on a fresh copy:

    mv /usr/share/wordpress /usr/share/wordpress.hold
    wget http://wordpress.org/latest.zip
    unzip latest.zip
    mv wordpress /usr/share
    cd /usr/share
    ln -s /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php wp-config.php
    mv /usr/share/wordpress.hold/wp-content/uploads /usr/share/wordpress/wp-content
    chown -R www-data:www-data /usr/share/wordpress
    logging into WP admin showed a screen indicating that it would update the database to the new version

    —–IF MYSQL server and WORDPRESS are on different servers————————

    Log in as super user or use sudo
    Open /etc/mysql/my.cnf using gedit
    Find bind-address, and change its value to the database server host machine’s IP address. For me, it was localhost or 127.0.0.1
    Save and close the file.
    Come back to terminal and execute sudo service mysql start

  4. Create Virtual Machines on UBUNTU using KVM!
    This is easy!

    #sudo apt-get install qemu-kvm libvirt-bin bridge-utils virt-manager qemu-system
    #adduser grest libvirtd

    LIST THE VIRTUAL MACHINES
    #virsh -c qemu:///system list

    NOW CREATE A VM by clicking the UBUNTU Button, then type Virtual machine manager….you will notice the icon, click to run and creat your FIRST virtual machine.

  5. File systems and Automount with autofs!

    /etc/fstab file controls what is mounted at startup (similar to mapping drives on windows OS).
    If you look at the contents of fstab you will notice that they utilize UUIDs…..why? if you happen to create more partiitions a reference to /dev/sda/sdaX (X=numerical number starting wtih 1) could change on you.
    How do i look for the Universally Unique ID (UUID)? simply use lvdisplay or blkid
    Check out these commands:

    #vim /etc/fstab
    #lvdisplay
    #blkid

    NOTE= another files system is AUTOFS. This automounts nfs shares and can serve as a single mount point for multiple shares.
    It’s root configuration file is auto.master, to edit:

    #vim /etc/auto.master

    editing the auto.master file we have the following contents:

    /nfs /etc/auto.nfs

    This states that the mount point will be /nfs and the file as to where the NFS share and server are located is in a file called auto.nfs

    To install autofs:
    #sudo apt-get install autofs

    now edit the auto.fs file and it should look something like this:
    server server:/

    If you have previously configured the NFS shares as static mounts, now is the time to unmount them.

    $ sudo umount /server

    Next, remove (or comment out) their respective entries in /etc/fstab.

    #server:/ /server/ nfs defaults 0 0
    After entering your changes, run the following command to reload autofs:

    $ sudo reload autofs

    In a later post……we will install an NFS share so that the above steps can be tested. -F4x4

  6. UPDATING UBUNTU
    Want to update from ubuntu 13 “saucy salamaner” to ubuntu 14 “trusty tahr”?
    Press the Superkey (Windows key) to launch the Dash and search for Update Manager! -F4x4

  7. Find who’s hogging up the bandwidth with ETHERAPE!

    #sudo apt-get install etherape

    thats it….run the new app as root and you will see something like this:

  8. REDHAT Enterprise Linux Notes!

    installed rhel7 via Oracle Virtualbox, set network to BRIDGED in VM

    logon as root and vi the following

    BASIC NETWORKING STATIC IP ENTRY

    #vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3. Open this file and enter the following information. Note that your HWADDR,DEVICE,UUID will be different:
    DEVICE=”enp0s3″
    NETBOOT=”yes”
    HWADDR=”08:00:27:15:38:B7″
    TYPE=”Ethernet”
    BOOTPROTO=”none”
    NAME=”enp0s3″
    UUID=”462f4834-4fe7-43a7-84e7-83b2722e94c1″
    ONBOOT=”yes”
    IPADDR=”10.1.1.110″
    NETMASK=”255.0.0.0″
    GATEWAY=”10.1.1.1″

    #service network restart
    #ip show address (or simply “ip a”)
    #ping 10.1.1.1
    #ping http://www.yahoo.com

    • YUM repository will be empty. RHEL7 will have to be registered!
      # subscription-manager register –username –password –auto-attach
      Attach a specific subscription through the Customer Portal

      After registration, you can to assign a subscription to the registered system from the Customer Portal by referring this article.

      After this, refresh the information on your machine using the following command. Be sure to run this any time you add or change the attached subscription from the Customer Portal:
      # subscription-manager refresh
      Attach a subscription from any available that match the system

      After registration, use the following command to attach any available subscription that matches the current system.

      # subscription-manager attach –auto
      Register with a specific pool

      After registration, use the following command to attach a subscription from a specific pool:

      # subscription-manager attach –pool=
      Note: With subscription-manager-1.1.9-1 or later, attach option has been replacing the subscribe option. For more information, please refer to following article: RHBA-2013-0350

      If you are not sure of the pool ID needed, these and details such as expiration dates can be viewed using the following command:

      # subscription-manager list –available –all
      Registration via GUI

      # subscription-manager-gui
      Systems can also be registered with Customer Portal Subscription Management during the firstboot process or as part of the kickstart setup (both described in the Installation Guide)
      Unregistering a system

      # subscription-manager remove –all
      # subscription-manager unregister
      # subscription-manager clean
      For additional instructions on registering, unregistering, and reregistering a system using Red Hat Subscription Management, for more information please refer to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide and Red Hat Subscription Management documentation.
      https://access.redhat.com/solutions/253273

  9. Funny thing with UBUNTU is that the repository doesnt point to Google.
    Here are the steps:

    Setup key with:

    wget -q -O – https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add –

    Setup repository with:

    sudo sh -c ‘echo “deb [arch=amd64] http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main” >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google.list’

    Setup package with:

    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install

    where is the name of the package you want to install.

    FOR CHROME, the package name is “google-chrome-stable” (no quotes)

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